Drip irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation or micro irrigation or localized irrigation, is an irrigation method that saves water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root zone, through a network of valves, pipes, tubing and emitters. It is done through narrow tubes that deliver water directly to the base of the plant.
Primitive drip irrigation has been used since ancient times. Fan Sheng-Chih Shu, written in China during the first century BCE, describes the use of buried, unglazed clay pots filled with water as a means of irrigation. Modern drip irrigation began its development in Germany in 1860 when researchers began experimenting with subsurface irrigation using clay pipe to create combination irrigation and drainage systems. Research was later expanded in the 1920s to include the application of perforated pipe systems. The usage of plastic to hold and distribute water in drip irrigation was later developed in Australia by Hannis Thill.
Usage of a plastic emitter in drip irrigation was developed in Israel by Simcha Blass and his son Yeshayahu. Instead of releasing water through tiny holes, that are blocked easily by tiny particles, water was released through larger and longer passageways by using velocity to slow water inside a plastic emitter. The first experimental system of this type was established in 1959 by Blass who partnered later (1964) with Kibbutz Hatzerim to create an irrigation company called Netafim. Together they developed and patented the first practical surface drip irrigation emitter.
Modern drip irrigation has arguably become the world's most valued innovation in agriculture since the invention of the impact sprinkler in the 1930s, which offered the first practical alternative to surface irrigation surface irrigation. Drip irrigation may also use devices called micro-spray heads, which spray water in a small area, instead of dripping emitters. These are generally used on tree and vine crops with wider root zones. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) uses permanently or temporarily buried dripperline or drip tape located at or below the plant roots. It is becoming popular for row crop irrigation, especially in areas where water supplies are limited or recycled water is used for irrigation. Careful study of all the relevant factors like land topography, soil, water, crop and agro-climatic conditions are needed to determine the most suitable drip irrigation system and components to be used in a specific installation.
Drip Irrigation system
1. Pump Station
The Irrigation system will be powered by an Electric driven motor Pump with a capacity of Maximum flow rate (as per design requirement) and the total dynamic head will also be placed as per the requirement. The Pump station will have Control Valves, Air release valve, and all necessary accessories.
2. Main Pipe Line
The main Pipe line of the system is PVC /HDPE of any size with PN (required pressure), its purpose is to deliver the water from the pump station to the irrigation sub-hydraulic units. The pipe supply will be with all necessary Fittings and Valves.
3. Sub-Hydraulic Unit
The total system of Irrigation can be divided in to sub-hydraulic unit. These hydraulic zones will be commanded by an electric solenoid flow control valve of (designed) diameter. The hydraulic unit consists a PVC pipe of the required diameter with PN of vital pressure for manifold purpose to deliver the water to the laterals. In case of drip irrigation system, the laterals will usually be LDPE dripper pipe of12 - 16mm in diameter with integral PC dripper installed with 1 – 2 l/hr, spaced at 20 – 30 cm each.
4. Automation control
The Irrigation system can be fully automatic system; hence the two control valves of sub-control unit will be opened and closed automatically from the head controlling unit at the pump station.
Main Feature of the Automation:-
- Multiple pumps control
- Filter flushing with master control for pressure sustaining valve
- Runs up to 15 valves - sequential or grouped
- EC/pH monitoring and control
- Multiple fertilizer mixes and programming options
- Multiple water, fertilizer and auxiliary flow meters
- Comprehensive logs of all sensor data and graphic
5. Filteration and Fertigation
Fertigation system is installed at the head controlling unit in order to supply the fertilizer to the crops via irrigation systems. The Fertigation is Amiad Fertilizer Injector pump , Fertilizer tankers and accessories.
AMIAD fertilizer injector pump does not need external power supply since the linear hydraulic motor is powered by the hydraulic pressure of the irrigation system.
In order to prevent the drippers from clogging it’s provided a Fully Automatic Screen filter of 3” in size.